Peter: Timeline
April: Major Personalities
Maegan: Key concepts, summary
Caden: Analysis

Timeline of Events (Peter Folkins)
-Adolph Hitler joins the National Socialist German Workers Party and is mentored by Deitrich Eckart.
-Benito Mussolini creates the Italian Fascist movement
-Hitler speaks before six thousand people in Munich. This is the first time he uses supporters to throw pamphlets and publicize the meeting.
-Mussolini marches on Rome, bringing the Italian Fascist Party to power and kicking out the Prime Minister.
-Hitler leads the Beer Hall Putsch, which is unsuccessful and causes him to spend one year in jail. While in jail, he receives many letters from admirers.
-Mussolini invades the Greek island of Corfu in the Corfu incident. The League of Nations tried to stop him, but was unsuccessful.
-Mussolini's title is changed from "president of the Council of Ministers" to "head of the government"
-Mussolini outlaws all political parties except Fascism in Italy.
-The "Battle for Land" initiative is introduced by Mussolini.
-Hitler gives a speech to the Industry Club in Düsseldorf and garners support from industrialists.
-Hitler runs for President of Germany. He comes in second but establishes that he is a viable candidate for office.
-Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany
-The Reichstag is set on fire, which is seen as a communist plot, leading to the suspension of basic rights by the government and the driving out of Communist groups.
-President Paul von Hindenburg dies and Hitler becomes both President and Chancellor.
-Italy successfully invades Ethiopia
-Hitler signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact with Joseph Stalin that secretly divides Poland between the two leaders and assures that the two countries will not be aggressive towards the other
-Hitler invades Poland, and Britain and France declare war on Germany.
-Gamal Abdel Nasser establishes the Free Officers Movement
-German troops attack the Soviet Union, but are forced back by the Soviet forces and inclement weather.
-Battle of Stalingrad: Germans take devastating losses against the Soviet Union.
-Mussolini develops the idea of economic socialization.
-Operation Overlord causes many Germans to realize that the war was lost.
-Hitler and his wife Eva Braun commit suicide while the Soviet troops are still two blocks away.
-Nasser and his associates attempt to kill Hussein Sirri Pasha
-Nasser publishes a six-point program for Egypt that condemns British occupation
-Troops loyal to Nasser remove Muhammed Naguib from office and Nasser is appointed Prime Minister
-Julius Nyerere forms the Tanganyika African National Union in order to obtain national sovereignty for Tanganyika (an East African territory)
-Nasser does not respond to an Israeli attack on the Gaza Strip, which decreases his popularity among the citizens of Egypt.
-The Suez Canal is nationalized under Nasser.
-Nasser gives a speech about Arab unification.
-Nasser creates the Charter for National Action as part of a nationalization plan
-Nasser begins modernizing the army, school system.
-Nyerere is elected Prime Minister
-Nyerere is elected President of the newly formed Tanganyika Republic
-Nyerere aids in toppling the Sultan of Zanzibar
-Arab League Summit in Sudan
-War of Attrition
-Nyerere aids in the Seychelles coup
-Nyerere successfully leads Tanzania in a war against Idi Amin, completely defeating his government.
-Nyerere retires from office

Works Cited

· Born December 26, 1893
· Died on September 9, 1976
· Used a mixture of nationalism and communism to join the Chinese people together
· Grew up a peasant.
· Studied history and politics
· Was one of the few founders of the Chinese Communist Party
· Mao was elected chairman of the communist party in Tsunyi during the long march
· Mao proclaimed the new peoples republic of China on October 1st 1941

· Born April 20, 1889
· Died April 30 1945
· Promised jobs for the out of work people
· When violence and chaos broke out in Germany , Hitler saw it as an opportunity for a strong leader to step in
· Hitler appealed to the middle class by playing on their fear of Communism
· President Hindenburg appointed him chancellor of Germany in 1933
· Hitler got Hindenburg to sign an agreement allowing the Nazis to put their opponents in prisons and concentration camps
· Hitler got more people jobs by making it illegal for Jews to work leaving more open jobs for non-Jewish citizens.

· Born December 6, 1878 but had records changed to say he was born one year later
· Died March of 1953
· Stalin was beaten as a child and sent to religious school
· He did not have a good relationship with his mother and was not at her funeral
· At first Stalin did not know how to give public speeches but was later taught by Kudryavtsev
· He made it to where every home had a picture of himself and later blew up churches because he wanted there to be no god greater than him
· He made it to where his country saw him as a good man with propaganda of him with women and children.

Key Concepts (Maegan Burkhart)

A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. Sometimes the term de facto single-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system where laws or practices prevent the opposition from legally getting power. Most single-party states have been ruled either by parties following Leninism, or by parties following some type of nationalist or fascist ideology, or parties that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule.
  • Notable single-party states: China, Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam
  • Former single-party states: Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, Spain

Fascism: a political ideology emphasizing national identity, strong leadership by a single charismatic dictator, aggressive militarism and an alliance of the state with big business. Fascism is opposed to communism and to a lesser extent, liberal democracy. Fascist states include: Italy, Germany, Japan and Franco’s Spain.

Nationalism: a rising force in many states, based on the idea of organizing politics around a national identity. In China the Guomindang or Nationalist Party is consolidating its control. In Italy, Germany and Spain nationalism becomes a force in the rise of the authoritarian and totalitarian governments of Mussolini, Hitler and France.

Communism: the revolutionary ideology of the Soviet Union, the Chinese Communist party and Bela Kun’s Hungarian Republic, among others. Communism calls for leadership by a communist party, state control of the economy to provide economic equality, and the revolutionary overthrow of capitalist and imperialist powers. Note that “socialism” is sometimes used as a synonym for communism, so you have to examine the usage carefully.

Authoritarianism: A form of social organization characterized by submission to authority. It is usually opposed to individualism and democracy. In politics, an authoritarian government is one in which political power is concentrated in a leader or leaders, typically unelected by the people, who possess exclusive, unaccountable, and arbitrary power. Authoritarianism differs from totalitarianism in that social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government's control.

Totalitarianism: A political system where the state, usually under the power of a single political person, faction, or class, recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible. Totalitarianism is usually characterized by the coincidence of authoritarianism (where ordinary citizens have less significant share in state decision-making) and ideology (a pervasive scheme of values promulgated by institutional means to direct most if not all aspects of public and private life).Totalitarian regimes or movements stay in political power through an all-encompassing propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that is often marked by personality cultism, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of speech, mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism.

Summary (Maegan Burkhart)

The name of a single party state speaks for itself. One political party in complete control of the state characterizes a single party state. No other parties are allowed into elections, meaning the single-party is likely to stay in power for many years. As history has shown, only through revolution and war has it been truly possible to overthrow the immense power of a single-party state. There are many different types of single party states, which come to power through many different routes. Marxism, Leninism, communism, fascism, nationalism, and the overthrow of a colonial power are some of the leading causes behind the rule of single-party states. Single-party states are often looked down upon in America because of the conflicting ideals between single-party rule and democracy. Although the conflict of single-party states is most commonly associated with the 20th century, it is important to still understand the doctrines behind this dominant rule in the 21st century because many prominent single-party states remain in power today as well as the large effect they had on shaping today’s global society.
The rise of the majority of single-party states can be attributed to the rise of Marxism, Leninism, and Maoism. Marxism was a political ideology developed by Karl Marx, a German philosopher, with the idea of a state implementing socialism on the way to communism. Marxism was against capitalism and the power it gave to the “bourgeoisie”, otherwise known as the wealthy ruling class of society. Marxism instead focused on the proletariat, the common man majority in society. Vladmir Lenin adapted Marxism into Leninism, which he then used to develop Russia as a single-party state. Mao Zedong, the influential Communist leader of China, also adapted Marxism in the development of his theories, Maoism, and the rise of China as a Communist single-party state.
Many factors can lead to the rise of single party states. In Egypt, the opposition and overthrow of a colonial power lead to the rule of Nasser. In Russia and Germany, recent failures in war and rising economic troubles led to the rules of Lenin and Hitler. In China, political revolution led to the rule of Mao. All of these people were searching for an end to their troubles, which they found in the leaders of single-party states. Nationalism is also a key concept in single-party states: often the single party is seen as the savior of the country, the struggles all worth the betterment of the country. Political indoctrination, re-education and propaganda are also used as way for the rising and sustainability of single-party states. Opposing viewpoints are crushed in view of the majority, and in such a way that one begins to believe in the single-party. The lasting effects of these revolutions have varied in countries, with Communist China still very prominent, while Nazi Germany has been completely destroyed.
It is important to study the effects of the rise and rule of single-party states. In the United States, we essentially view democracy as the only route for political and economic success while keeping in tact individual liberties. But the influence of single-party states remains to affect both Americans and people around the world.

Analysis (Caden Broussard)
To what extent was ideology an important factor in the rise to power of Nyerere?
Julius Kambarage Nyerere served as the first President of Tanzania (previously Tanganyika) from 1961 until his retirement in 1985. Nyerere, who was often referred to as Baba wa Taifa (Father of the Nation), came to power after a one party election elected him Prime Minister and later President. The Tanzanian leader was most famous for his socialist vision of Ujamaa that came to dominate his policies. In this way, ideology was a very important, if not the most important, factor in the rise to power of Nyerere. The Arusha Declaration, which outlined Nyerere’s vision of socialism, called for an overhaul of the economic system through African socialism and self-reliance. Thus, a villagization program was implemented in 1973 and lasted until 1976. The Declaration was received with widespread criticism. The eagerness to achieve political goals swiftly meant the loss of the principle of decentralized participatory rural development. In the end, the idea of African socialism propelled Nyerere into the spotlight but the failure of the Arusha Declaration led to his ultimate downfall. Still, Nyerere was named posthumously “World Hero of Social Justice” by the United Nations General Assembly in 2009.

How did Peronism influence Argentina and the rest of South America?
Juan Domingo Peron served as the President of Argentina, Argentine military officer, Secretary of Labor, and Vice President of Argentina. The man, along with his second wife Eva Peron, inspired the Argentine political movement known as Peronism. Peronism’s original ideology consisted of a strong centralized government (with authoritarian tendencies), freedom from foreign influences, a third way of economics that incorporated both capitalist and socialist elements, and a combination of nationalism and social democracy. This movement, also known as Justicialism, was one of the most progressive in all of Latin America. Peronism helped to popularize populism in Latin America and led to the nationalization of many large corporations. For this reason, many of Peronism’s critics accused it of being a fascist ideology and Peron was sent into exile for 18 years. The Peronist Party is now known as the Justicialist Party and still has many candidates run for various governmental positions each year.

What effect did Nasser’s policies have upon Egypt and the surrounding area?
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. He led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan and is heralded with introducing a new era of socialist reform in Egypt together with a profound advancement of pan-Arab nationalism. Nasser is famous for nationalizing the Suez Canal. On July 26, 1956, Nasser delivered a speech denouncing Western influence in the Arab world and announcing that the canal would be nationalized. This assertion enraged Western powers and enormously enhanced Nasser’s perceived political power. Thus, Egypt took its place on the world stage. Nasser’s policies also largely influenced neighboring countries. Nasser’s creation of the United Arab Republic disturbed neighboring Lebanon who later engaged in open warfare with Egypt. Additionally, many of Nasser’s policies led to modernization in the country. Nasser wanted to firmly establish Egypt as a leader of the Arab world. He used his influence to improve healthcare in the country and to strengthen infrastructure like roads and bridges.

Why was Mao’s Great Leap Forward a failure?
Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward was an economic and social campaign of the Communist Party of China that was aimed at transforming the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society. The plan consisted of a mandatory process of agricultural collectivization, which prohibited private farming and was introduced incrementally. The program was a disaster. Instead of experiencing economic growth, China in fact saw economic regression and widespread famine. Most experts attribute this failure to the program’s completely communist nature. Being strictly communist, the system granted no rewards to the masses. As such, citizens had no motivation to work harder or cleverer. Also, unhappiness in the population was at its peak as the Great Leap
Forward called for the banning of all religious and mystic institutions and their replacement by political meetings and propaganda. This discontent further discouraged Chinese citizens.